KTVU-TV, virtual channel 2 (digital channel 44), is the Fox-affiliated television station serving the San Francisco Bay Area. Licensed to Oakland, California, the station was owned by Atlanta-based Cox Enterprises in 1964, making it the largest Fox affiliate by market size that is not owned and operated by the network until February 8, 2015. KTVU's studio facilities are located in Oakland at Jack London Square, and its transmitter is located at Sutro Tower in San Francisco.
|Oakland/San Francisco/San Jose, California|
|Branding||KTVU Fox 2 (general)
KTVU Fox 2 News (newscasts)
|Channels||Digital: 44 (UHF)Virtual: 2 (PSIP)|
2.1 - FOX
2.2 - LATV
2.3 - Movies!
|Translators||Analog:K06FA 6 Hopland|
|First air date||March 3, 1958|
|Call letters' meaning||TeleVision for YoU|
|Former channel number(s)||Analog:2 (VHF, 1958-2009)
Digital: 56 (UHF, 2000-2009)
|Former affiliations||Independent (1958-1986)|
|Transmitter power||1000 kW|
In the few areas of the western United States where viewers cannot receive Fox programs over-the-air, KTVU is available to Dish Network customers as part of All American Direct's distant network package.
As an independent station
KTVU signed on the air as an independent station on March 3, 1958. (The call letters KTVU had been previously used for a short-lived Stockton station  on channel 36 in 1955-56, the successor to which, 1967's KGSC-TV—now KICU-TV -- came under common ownership with KTVU in 2000). Until the completion of the Sutro Tower, KTVU transmitted from a tower on San Bruno Mountain.
For a brief time in the early-1980s, KTVU was a nationwide superstation, seen mostly on parent Cox's cable systems. However, unable to compete with WTBS, WGN and WOR, KTVU left the national scene and merely became a regional superstation, seen on cable systems in northern California, Nevada, Oregon and to a lesser extent Utah.
As a Fox affiliate
On October 9, 1986, KTVU became a charter affiliate of the newly-created Fox Television Network. Distinctively, the station has been the only Cox-owned Fox affiliate under the same ownership; affiliates in Detroit and St. Louis were sold to different owners nearly a decade later, while Cox brought in affiliates in El Paso and Reno into their portfolio later on. KTVU launched a morning newscast called Mornings on 2 in 1991 (and, as such, became the fourth Fox affiliate or station to air weekday morning newscasts). It began to air an afternoon cartoon block known as Fox Kids by 1991. It also added more syndicated talk shows, court shows, and reality shows over the years. It still runs some off-network sitcoms. The station continued to run the Fox Kids block on weekdays until Fox ended weekday kids programming in early 2002, but still retained the Saturday lineup, which became 4Kids TV until that ended in 2008.
KTVU and KICU became sister stations in 2000 upon KICU's sale to Cox, and has moved its operations from its original studios in San Jose to KTVU's studios. As the first Bay Area duopoly, both stations now share several programming and cross promotion as well.
On March 3, 2008, KTVU celebrated its 50th anniversary of broadcasting. Fifteen promos of KTVU's 50th anniversary aired which included Bits & Pieces, Romper Room, Captain Satellite as well as sports like wrestling and Roller Derby, Innovation, Technology and personalities/faces just to name a few. Many promos are available on KTVU's website.
 Station branding
In the early years as a Fox affiliate, KTVU still referenced itself as Channel 2 and rarely called itself Fox 2 as other Fox affiliates did and still do, although it has done network promos as Fox Channel 2. In 1996, the Fox logo was added into the longtime Circle Laser 2 logo (used since 1975), and when the network tightened its station standardizations, the station branded itself as KTVU Fox 2 today — only to revert to KTVU Channel 2 during newscasts. At the same time, it incorporated the KTVU calls into its branding full time to maintain a local presence. On February 8, 2015, KTVU began fully owned and operated by Fox Television Stations.
|2.1||KTVU-DT1||main KTVU-TV programming / FOX (HD)|
KTVU shut down its analog signal on June 12, 2009 as part of the DTV transition, it moved to channel 44, previously occupied by KBCW pre-transition era. PSIP is used to display KTVU's virtual channel as 2 on digital television receivers.
KTVU currently have a construction permit on a digital fill-in translator on channel 48. This translator will serve the southern viewing area, including San Jose.
Converting to HDTV
On October 10, 2006 KTVU was the first station in the Bay Area to debut a new state-of-the-art high definition (HD) studio for production of their newscasts in HD. This follows sister stations WSB-TV in Atlanta, Georgia and WFTV in Orlando, Florida which were already airing their newscasts in HD.
Until the late 1990s, KTVU was seen nationally on PrimeStar and C-Band satellite systems. Now, it is available nationwide to qualifying DISH Network subscribers through All American Direct, which began to lease space from DISH Network to distribute distant network signals following a court ruling that said DISH itself could not distribute the programming.
Over the years, KTVU aired a schedule of cartoons, off-network sitcoms, old movies, drama shows, talk shows, local news, and religious shows. It was the leading independent station in the San Francisco television market for years. It retained this status when more independents (on UHF) signed on the air over the years by reinventing the station's own image with its former longtime slogan: "There's Only One 2." As a VHF station competitor, KTVU aired The 8 O'Clock Movie as an independent alternative to network prime time programming by KRON, KPIX, and KGO-TV.
Fox airs fewer hours of network programming than its three main rivals (CBS, NBC and ABC). KTVU has generally aired the entire Fox lineup with no pre-emptions, except for San Francisco Giants baseball during the term of its contract with the team. At first KTVU delayed pre-empted programming to the weekends, but with the growth of Fox and viewer demand the station eventually aired the delayed primetime shows following The Ten O'Clock News. The Bay Area has always been one of the largest Nielsen ratings markets and Fox naturally wanted to have a network owned-and-operated station in the area. Through the network's parent, News Corporation, it tried several times to buy KTVU, but Cox turned down every offer. When Cox purchased KICU, the pre-empted Fox programming would be moved to that station to air in its normal timeslot in lieu of KTVU. The issue over Giants baseball and pre-emptions became moot when the team announced that NBC owned-and-operated KNTV would be the flagship station for the Giants beginning with the 2008 season. This is also due to in part that KICU, KTVU's sister-station, which also broadcasts Oakland A's baseball until 2009, when CSN California took over as a result of an exclusive contract, ending the broadcast on KICU. Despite all this, Fox has been very satisfied with KTVU, as one of its strongest affiliates.
Classic television series and movies
For many years, KTVU regularly ran reruns of classic, filmed television series from the 1950s and 1960s. An early favorite on the station was the syndicated Topper series. In fall 1981, KTVU ran Laverne & Shirley, Odd Couple, M.A.S.H. and Barney Miller in the weeknight 6-8 p.m. block. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, KTVU aired syndicated comedies such as I Love Lucy in back-to-back episodes in the mornings, and Three's Company and Too Close for Comfort (former ABC primetime comedies) in the early afternoon.
KTVU frequently showed classic movies, especially week nights from 8 to 10 p.m. and on Sunday afternoons. In the early 1960s, KTVU began televising Warner Brothers films, mostly from the 1950s and mostly in color, on Sundays at 7 p.m. They were the first Bay Area television station to present such films as A Star Is Born (1954) with Judy Garland and James Mason, East of Eden (1955) with James Dean and Julie Harris, and Rebel Without a Cause with James Dean and Natalie Wood. KTVU exercised discretion and limited commercial interruptions during the movies, and often offered them uncensored and with interesting comments, either by a studio host or via slides. The station even televised MGM's Hollywood Revue of 1929 with some of the original two-strip Technicolor sequences.
In 1992, KTVU edited a version of director David Lynch's 1984 science fiction film Dune, combining the Allen Smithee television cut with the original theatrical release (and thereby restoring all the violence of the latter cut, while eliminating some of the objectionable edits that caused Lynch to take his name off the credits of the TV print).
During the 1960s and 1970s the station aired an afternoon children's show called Captain Satellite. The show's host was Bob March. Up until the 1980s, the station produced a series of classic children's public service shorts under the title Bits and Pieces. Bits and Pieces often featured a number of talking puppets, Charley and Humphrey, and The Space Explorers were aimed at delivering positive and educational messages to children. Pat McCormick, had brought his puppets from KGO. The shorts often aired during children's programming. Shots of KTVU children's programming appear in the movie Mrs. Doubtfire, portions of which were shot in the KTVU studios and film library. It was also the Bay Area origination of Romper Room, a children's television show which was franchised, instead of syndicated. In the 1980s, Romper Room generally aired at 8:30 a.m.
In the 1980s, KTVU aired nationally-syndicated talk shows that later moved to other stations. Donahue aired at 11 a.m. on KTVU in the early 1980s, before moving to KGO-TV. "Live! with Regis and Kathie Lee" debuted in the San Francisco Bay Area in September 1988 at 11 a.m. on KTVU. It also later moved to KGO-TV. The one-hour daily program by television evangelist James Bakker aired at 6 a.m. on KTVU in the early 1980s.
In the early 21st century, KTVU broadcast San Francisco's Chinese New Year Parade each winter. Sister station KICU generally re-broadcast it the same evening (KTSF broadcast its own Chinese-language version using "pool" cameras).
Other programs that were once on KTVU's schedule included:
- Creature Features, hosted by Bob Wilkins from 1971 to 1979 and was replaced by John Stanley from 1979 until 1984.
- Dialing for Dollars, hosted by Pat McCormick, the voice of Charley and Humphrey and later the station's weatherman
- National All-Star Wrestling, telecast on Friday nights during the early and mid-1960s from the KTVU studios or San Francisco's Cow Palace, hosted by Walt Harris
- Roller Derby Walt Harris also hosted for many years The San Francisco Bay Bombers Roller Derby games till the demise of the IRDL in 1973.
San Francisco Giants baseball games were televised by KTVU from 1958, When the team arrived in San Francisco from New York, to 2007. On November 1, 2007, it was announced that KNTV will broadcast Giants games beginning with the 2008 MLB season. Beginning in 1996, some Giants Saturday afternoon games (as well as certain postseason games like the entire 2002 World Series) have been carried via the Fox Network, which had won broadcast rights to Major League Baseball (currently, the Fox network coverage marks the only times the Giants and/or the A's appear on KTVU). KTVU has also been the home of most San Francisco 49ers games since 1994, when Fox won the contract to carry the National Football Conference games. KTVU also airs the Oakland Raiders when they are hosting an NFC team. They (along with sister station KICU) also carry Oakland Raiders preseason games.
The San Francisco/Golden State Warriors also aired many of their games on KTVU through the years, on several occasions: 1962-1963, 1965–1968, 1969–1983, and the late 1990s to 2001.
The station has been well known in the Bay Area for its locally-produced news, public affairs and children's programming, especially The Ten O'Clock News, which for years had been the only television news broadcast in the Bay Area at that hour. Throughout the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, The Ten O'Clock News was often referred to as "the number one prime time newscast in the country", which was true based on the number of viewers at that hour. KTVU's 10 p.m. newscast was such a force to be reckoned with that KBWB cancelled its own 10 p.m. news in 2002 after having no luck competing with KTVU. KBCW has since debuted a primetime newscast produced by KPIX in March 2008, however, that newscast is only 30 minutes long instead of one hour.
When KRON-TV became an independent station, it also scheduled its new prime time newscast at 9 p.m. so as to not compete directly with KTVU. In the early 1990s, KRON, along with KPIX (throughout the 1990s), did have 10 p.m. newscasts, which have since been moved back up to the 11 p.m. time slot. During the period, KTVU branded its late newscast as The Original Ten O'Clock News. The retirement of KTVU's long-time news director Fred Zehnder brought changes to the newsroom but in 2000 it was ranked as the highest quality local newscast in the nation by the Project for Excellence in Journalism under his immediate successor, Andrew Finlayson, while maintaining number one ratings at ten and throughout the noon and morning newscasts. Varying prime time numbers and improvements at competitors have since lead to a decline in the once dominant news operation's ratings.
The Ten O'Clock News is also one of the few syndicated local newscasts in the United States. It also airs on co-owned Fox affiliate KRXI-TV in Reno, Nevada, and also airs on MyNetworkTV affiliate KRVU-LP in the Chico/Redding market, and MyNetworkTV affiliate KEMY in the Eureka/Arcata market. KRVU and KEMY are not owned by KTVU parent company Cox. Some of the stations also carry KTVU's earlier newscasts and Mornings on 2. KTVU had used the "KTVU News Theme" by Michael Randall as its news theme starting in 1987, until it was replaced on June 23, 2010 by a new music package called "Icon News Music Package", produced by 615 Music. KTVU was the last Bay Area news station at one point not to use a news helicopter; In the 2000s[when?], the station began to utilize a news helicopter, which is branded News Chopper 2.
Before its current station status, KTVU had only the 10 p.m. newscast; this was common of most independent-turned Fox affiliates back then to have more syndicated programming and children's programming than it did news. That changed when the station decided to go head-to-head with competitors KRON, KPIX, KGO-TV and KNTV by leaning more towards a news-intensive format which took years to take effect. The noon newscast, originally called 2 at Noon, was added in 1986, displacing syndicated game shows. The original morning newscast, Mornings on 2, debuted in January 1991 in the 7 to 9 a.m. slot. Fox has not had any national network newscasts and continues not to have any to this day, but it still motivated its affiliates, including KTVU, to air more local news. An additional morning newscast was added in 1996, which would later expand to two hours from one hour, then a 6 p.m. newscast would be added in 2000, and finally in 2005, an hour-long 5 p.m. newscast.
Today, KTVU currently broadcasts a total of 47 hours of local newscasts each week (eight hours on weekdays and 3½ hours on Saturdays and Sundays), second only to MyNetworkTV affiliate KRON-TV for the most hours of local news in the San Francisco Bay Area; the station now has newscasts at noon, 5 and 6 p.m., in addition its morning and 10 p.m. broadcasts (however as is standard with Fox stations that carry early evening weekend newscasts, KTVU's Saturday 6 p.m. and Sunday 5 p.m. newscasts are subject to preemption or delay due to sports coverage from Fox). KTVU however is the largest Fox station not owned by the network without a newscast in the traditional 11 p.m. timeslot, and the fifth-largest Fox station in the United States without an 11 p.m. newscast. KTVU also produces Bay Area News at 7 for sister station KICU, presented by Gasia Mikaelian, weeknights at 7 p.m., and a rebroadcast of The Ten O'Clock News is shown at KICU at 11:30 p.m.
On January 22, 2011, KTVU launched two-hour weekend morning newscasts on Saturdays and Sundays from 7 to 9 a.m., making KTVU the largest Fox affiliate and the second-largest Fox station – behind Fox-owned KDFW in Dallas-Ft. Worth – to carry a weekend morning newscast, with Mike Mibach and Claudine Wong as anchors. Also in January, KTVU expanded its weekday morning newscast to 4½ hours, with a half-hour extension of the newscast at 4:30 a.m. The additions expanded KTVU's weekly newscast output to 47 hours of local newscasts each week, with eight hours on weekdays and 3½ hours on weekends.
On February 8, 2015, KTVU adopted a newly looked with Fox O&Os graphics package, accompanied by the replacement of the "Icon News" package with OSI Music's "Fox Affiliate News Theme", and rebranding its newscasts under the name: KTVU Fox 2 News. On June 22, 2015, KTVU expanded the Mornings on 2 weekday newscast by a half-hour earlier at 4:00 a.m., and also on the same day, KTVU debuted an hour-long 4:00 p.m. weekday newscast, titled The Four on 2.
For the month of August 2010, KTVU's newscasts ranked #1 in viewers 25-54, beating KPIX, KGO, KNTV, and KRON.
- The Ten O'Clock News (March 3, 1958–present)
- The Tuck and Fortner Report (1970s)
- Action News (1970s-1980)
- Channel 2 News (1980-2000)
- Mornings on 2 (morning newscast; 1991–present)
- 2 at Noon (noon newscast; 1991–2000)
- KTVU Channel 2 News (2000–2015)
- KTVU Fox 2 News (2015-present)
- The Four on 2 (4pm weekday newscast; 2015-present)
- There's Only One 2 (early 1980s-1987)
- The 10 o'clock News Hour. If You're That Interested, We're That Good. (1987 - source: ad in 9/12/87 TV Guide, San Francisco Metropolitan Edition)
- First in the Bay Area (1987–2000)
- You're Watching KTVU Channel 2, the Bay Area's Fox Affiliate! (c. 1991)
- The Bay Area is Watching (1999–2001)
- Complete Bay Area News Coverage (2001–2013)
Current on-air staff
- Tori Campbell - weekday mornings "Mornings on 2" (7-9 a.m.) and noon
- Pam Cook - weekday mornings "Morning News" (4:30-7 a.m.); business reporter
- Dave Clark - weekday mornings "Morning News" (4:30-7 a.m.) and "Mornings on 2" (7-9 a.m.)
- Julie Haener - weeknights at 6 and 10 p.m.
- Heather Holmes - Saturdays at 6, Sundays at 5 and weekends at 10 p.m.; also weekday reporter and fill-in anchor
- Mike Mibach - weekend mornings "Mornings on 2 Weekend Edition"; also weekday reporter and fill-in anchor
- Gasia Mikaelian - weeknights at 5 and 7 p.m. (on KICU)
- Frank Somerville - weeknights at 5, 6 and 10 p.m.
- Ken Wayne - Saturdays at 6, Sundays at 5 and weekends at 10 p.m.; also weekday reporter and fill-in anchor.
- Claudine Wong - weekend mornings "Mornings on 2 Weekend Edition"; also weekday reporter and fill-in anchor
- Bill Martin (AMS Certified Broadcast Meteorologist and NWA Seals of Approval) - Chief Meteorologist; weeknights at 5, 6, 7 (on KICU) and 10 p.m.
- Steve Paulson - Meteorologist; weekday mornings and Tuesday-Wednesdays at noon
- Mark Tamayo (AMS Certified Broadcast Meteorologist and NWA Seals of Approval) - Meteorologist; Mondays, Thursdays and Fridays at noon and 7 p.m. (on KICU), Saturdays at 6, Sundays at 5 and weekends at 10 p.m.
- Rosemary Orozco - meteorologist; weekend mornings "Mornings on 2 Weekend Edition", also weekday fill-in
- Mark Ibáñez - sports director; weeknights at 6 and 10 p.m.
- Joe Fonzi - sports anchor; Saturdays at 6, Sundays at 5 and weekends at 10 p.m.
- Fred Inglis - sports reporter; also fill-in anchor
- Allison Burns - Washington D.C. bureau reporter
- Sal Castaneda - weekday morning traffic anchor, and weeknight 5 and 6 p.m. reporter
- Rosy Chu - Bay Area People host; also community affairs director
- Priya David-Clemens - general assignment reporter
- Kraig Debro - general assignment reporter; also fill-in anchor
- John Fowler - health and science editor; general assignment reporter occasionally
- Diane Guerrazzi - general assignment reporter
- Carol Han - Washington D.C. reporter
- Robert Handa - San Jose Bureau reporter
- Jade Hernadez - general assignment reporter
- Jana Katsuyama - general assignment reporter
- Lloyd LaCuesta - South Bay Bureau chief
- Amber Lee - weeknight reporter
- Patti Lee - general assignment reporter
- Scott MacFarlane- Washington D.C. reporter
- Bob MacKenzie - general assignment reporter
- Tara Moriaty - general assignment reporter; also fill-in traffic anchor
- Maureen Naylor - general assignment reporter
- Eric Rasmussen- special assignment reporter
- Rob Roth - San Francisco Bureau reporter
- John Sasaki - general assignment reporter; also fill-in anchor
- David Stevenson - general assignment reporter
- Tom Vacar - consumer editor; also occasional general assignment reporter
- Rita Williams - general assignment reporter
Notable former on-air staff
- Marilyn Baker - reporter
- Brian Banmiller - business editor, former host of Banmiller on Business
- Larry Beil (now at KGO-TV/KBWB)
- Rhonda Bentley - "Mornings on 2" weather anchor
- Marcia Brandwynne - anchor
- Mike Chamberlin - sports anchor (1984-1986)
- Brian Copeland - morning feature reporter (currently on KGO-AM)
- Elaine Corral-Kendall - 10 p.m. anchor
- Mark Curtis - anchor/reporter (now a political analyst)
- Priya David - reporter (later with CBS News, now host of "Keep it Local" at KOIN in Portland, OR)
- Ysobel Duran - reporter
- Diane Dwyer - anchor/reporter (now at KNTV)
- Faith Fancher - reporter (deceased)
- Ron Fortner - co-anchor on The Tuck and Fortner Report (deceased)
- Eric Greene - 2 at Noon host and Mornings on 2 anchor
- Leslie Griffith - '10 p.m. anchor
- Judd Hambrick - anchor
- Walt Harris - Staff announcer and host of live Friday night wrestling from KTVU's studios and Roller Derby announcer at live San Francisco Bay Bomber games that were taped from Kezar Pavilion on Sunday afternoons (until 1973)
- Ron Boltz - staff announcer (1970s-1980s; who was known for uttering in an ominous voice, "...there's only ONE.....T W O !")
- Craig Heaps - reporter (now senior writer and editor)
- Kim Hunter - reporter
- Jennifer Jolly - reporter
- Greg Liggins - reporter
- Terry Lowry - morning and noon anchor
- Renee Kemp - reporter
- Claude Mann - weekend anchor/reporter (deceased)
- Bob March - Host of Captain Satellite children's show, Host of Dialing for Dollars, and weather reporter
- Pat McCormick - Host of Dialing for Dollars, Charlie and Humphrey children's show
- Lee McEachern - reporter
- Steve McPartlin
- Bryon Miranda - meteorologist (currently chief meteorologist for KGTV-TV in San Diego)
- Steve Physioc - sports director (now with Fox Sports)
- Gary Park - sports director (1970s), reporter (1960s; deceased)
- Mark Pitta
- George Redding - anchor
- Dennis Richmond - 6 and 10 p.m. anchor (retired May 21, 2008)
- Ted Rowlands - reporter (now at CNN)
- Julia Sandstrom - meteorologist (2003-2008, now fill-in meteorologist for KHQ-TV and meteorologist for SWX in Spokane, WA)
- Bob Shaw - movie critic (deceased)
- Don Sherwood - talk show host (late 1950s; deceased)
- Sara Sidner - reporter/fill-in anchor (moved to CNN New Delhi bureau)  
- Barbara Simpson - anchor (now weekends on KSFO Babe in the Bunker)
- John Stanley - final host of Creature Features
- Dan Springer - morning reporter/fill-in anchor, now at Fox News
- Michael Tuck - co-anchor on The Tuck and Fortner Report (later worked at KCBS-TV in Los Angeles and San Diego's KFMB-TV, KGTV, and KUSI)
- Thuy Vu - anchor/reporter (left to anchor at KGO-TV, now at KPIX)
- George Watson - anchor/reporter
- Bob Wilkins - original host of Creature Features, Captain Cosmic children's show (deceased)
- Kevin Wing - reporter and longtime original assignment editor for "Mornings on 2" (now with KNTV and ABC News)
- Kim Yonenaka - reporter (now with Comcast Sportsnet Bay Area)
- ^ "Retro: Northern & Central California Tues, Sept 14, 1955". http://radioinsight.com/boards/index.php?t=msg&goto=67653&rid=15&S=4e937b8d51138f887a4a517999f7f391#msg_67653. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- ^ http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-06-1082A2.pdf
- ^ CDBS Print
- ^ https://licensing.fcc.gov/cgi-bin/ws.exe/prod/cdbs/forms/prod/cdbsmenu.hts?context=25&appn=101322685&formid=346&fac_num=35703
- ^ Kroner, Steve. "Giants sign deal with KNTV, will leave KTVU, the team's flagship station since 1958". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/11/01/SPHFT4PM5.DTL&type=sports. Retrieved 2007-11-01.
- ^ KTVU TV Listings Retrieved January 8, 2011
- ^ Mibach, Wong to anchor Ch. 2 weekend a.m. news
- ^ KTVU Expanding News in January 2011, TVNewsCheck.com, October 26, 2010. Retrived October 27, 2010.
- ^ http://sfppc.blogspot.com/2010/08/ktvu-touts-ratings-kgo-falls-to-third.html
- ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cC9e-r0SCag
- ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rC_i34QA0JE
- ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3InrjsLR9A0
- ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1AAsJc1EQ1c
- ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTg-G0QPTpI
- ^ http://www.ktvu.com/station/index.html
- ^ Hollis, Tim (November 2001). Hi There Boys and Girls: America's Local Children's TV Programs. University Press of Mississippi pg. 60. ISBN 1-57806-396-5